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Desicritics And Historical Commentary On Free Speech And The Danish Cartoons

February 03, 2006
Aaman Lamba

Free Speech is under attack!

This refrain is as old as Cato, the "conscience of Rome". The Romans noted that "No sooner a word is spoken than it is gone never to be recalled".

Justice Brandeis commented, "Fear of serious injury cannot alone justify oppression of free speech and assembly. Men feared witches and burnt women. It is the function of free speech to free men from the bondage of irrational fears."

In the South Asian context, Ashoka's Pillar Edicts recorded a focus on Free Speech and its restraint as the hallmarks of a good society.

Growth in essentials can be done in different ways, but all of them have as their root restraint in speech, that is, not praising one's own religion, or condemning the religion of others without good cause. And if there is cause for criticism, it should be done in a mild way. But it is better to honor other religions for this reason. By so doing, one's own religion benefits, and so do other religions, while doing otherwise harms one's own religion and the religions of others. Whoever praises his own religion, due to excessive devotion, and condemns others with the thought "Let me glorify my own religion," only harms his own religion. Therefore contact (between religions) is good. One should listen to and respect the doctrines professed by others. Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, desires that all should be well-learned in the good doctrines of other religions.

Those who are content with their own religion should be told this: Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, does not value gifts and honors as much as he values that there should be growth in the essentials of all religions. And to this end many are working — Dhamma Mahamatras, Mahamatras in charge of the women's quarters, officers in charge of outlying areas, and other such officers. And the fruit of this is that one's own religion grows and the Dhamma is illuminated also."

John Milton addressed the English Parliament in the Areopageitica on the freedom of the Press, to great result.

Cato was resurrected in the American Colonies in the form of political columns under the headline of "The Cato Letters". A particularly relevant one reads,

"Without freedom of thought, there can be no such thing as wisdom; and no such thing as publick liberty, without freedom of speech, which is the right of every man, as far as by it he does not hurt and control the right of another; and this is the only check which it ought to suffer, the only bounds which it ought to know.This sacred privilege is so essential to free government, that the security of property and the freedom of speech, always go together; and in those wretched countries where a man can not call his tongue his own, he can scarce call any thing else his own. Whoever would overthrow the liberty of the nation, must begin by subduing the freedom of speech; a thing terrible to publick traitors."

The tale of the guardians of free speech continues till today with the recent cartoons in Danish newspapers and the resultant reactions/over-reactions in various countries, countered by courageous commentary and collaborative criticism, not least in the blogosphere. The Committee To Protect Journalists reports on a bomb threat received by the Jyllands-Posten in Viby, Denmark recently. The newspaper's website has been flooded with 80,000 hate-mails.

These reactions remind me of a memory from my childhood in Bangalore, India. We rose late one balmy Sunday afternoon, read the paper and settled down to much on some juicy watermelon. After a while, we heard some shouting in the street outside. My father went outside to check and came back, somewhat pale. Apparently there were bunches of men gathered in street corners, and a sense of approaching menace seemed prevalent, like the stillness of the air before a summer storm. He made a few phone calls to friends in the city. This was in 1986, in the days before 24-hour television, the Internet and the blogosphere, so information spread through the grapevine faster than through official channels, as it probably does even today in the post-modern world.

Apparently, the local newspaper, the Deccan Herald, had printed a seemingly innocuous short story in its Sunday edition, which we received. The story concerned itself with the travails of a poor handicapped rickshaw-puller named Mohammed. The title of the story itself was "Mohammed The Idiot". Ancedotally, the same story also had a character named Sita, a prostitute. The illiterate mobs had heard of the tale, and begun to gather around the city, instigated, apparently by leaders like C M Ibrahim, later Aviation Minister. They finally marched on the offices of the newspaper on M G Road, and in short, tried to burn them down, rioting ensued, and 4 people were killed, scores others were injured. The fracas spread to Mysore within a week, and old Bangaloreans still remember those tense days with a frisson of fear. The New York Times also reported on the incident, in a pre-PC matter-of-fact manner.

The years have passed, yet one finds the mobocracy seems to have spanned the Flat World. The "Book Of Daniel" can be terminated in the United States, while writers and bloggers face imprisonment from Teheran to Beijing, and points between. The world has grown closer, totalitarian regimes fallen, yet the dichotomy of free speech and social conservatism & restraint continues to tilt to either side of the liberal balance. Free Speech has pervaded even the Arab world, thanks to the likes of Al-Jazeera and the Arab street's new-found openness.

Hugh Hewitt opines clearly that, "The third course between the cartoonist provocateurs and the radicals waving guns at the EU employees in Gaza is to denounce without ambiguity or excuse the latter but at the same time to delineate a very bright line between what the West stands for and the churlishness of the caroonist provocateurs."

Haroon Siddiqui feels this is not about free speech, but double standards around the relations between the West and the Muslim nations. "It features the easy clichés of the age — freedom of speech vs. Islamic intolerance, and open democratic debate vs. politically correct cravenness.

But what it has actually exposed is the European media's tendency to exploit anti-immigrant, particularly anti-Muslim, bigotry, as well as the Danes' readiness to bow to the gods of commerce."

Also, a comprehensive link to a huge selection of images of Mohammed, dating back centuries, ref boingboing

Desicritics have expressed their opinions forcefully and powerfully on the Danish situation, a round-up follows:

- Hamlet by Mohammad Jacques-Pierre

- Gazelle took the lead, responding to a Blogcritics article on Islam and Intolerance. We are pleased to have the cartoons themselves reproduced on these pages through her post.

- Does God Have A Sense Of Humor?

Anil Menon asked a few pithy questions, including, "Why is the Prophet a legitimate target for so-called "free expression" but other topics — such as anti-Semitism or making fun of gays and minorities — are off limits?

- The Freedom to be Offended - Part I and Part II

Atanu Dey started with the very direct "My advice to anyone who is offended by the lawful expression of free speech is simple: don't watch, hear, or read whatever it is you find offensive. Nobody is forcing you to read or watch what you find offensive." and then refined that argument to one familiar to proponents of 'small government' - local societies should set their own interpretations and laws. He noted, "What is legal and permissible is local; there is no global standard that can, or even should, be applied. Problems arise when one does not appreciate that distinction."

- Prophet Cartoons Spark Protests!

dkaps asked, "...Can non-believers depict visuals (even in a decent manner) of these two entities?"

- An Assault On Muslims

The Teeth Maestro feels the controversy has been manipulated by the Western Media, and expresses his despair that "Sadly it seems as if the Muslims continue to be pushed into a corner especially after 9/11 and continue to remain in the intense investigative spotlight for a good five years.

- Sacred Dogmas Of Free Society

Subhan Ahsan expresses his frustration at irresponsible journalism, saying, "Free Press would have been a good thing had not Journalists shunned away their social responsibilities in the name of Editorial Liberty."

- Speak Out For Yourself

Anil remembers Lennon and asks people to think for themselves, saying, "Religion did not create man, man created religion. Just step out of your religious boundaries, reach out and see the world just as a human being."

- The Hypocrisy Of The Cartoon Controversy

Vijay Sappani calls all participants in the controversy hypocrites, asking, "Leave religion alone, we already have enough global problems because of it. Is our creativity limited to insults and religious intolerance?"

- Extreme Timing

Gazelle responded to another Blogcritics article with some specific reasons behind the timing of the cartoons and the news uproar, concluding, It is a strategy ultimately designed to fail today like the war in iraq, although something similar worked successfully before the 1492 reconquista in Spain.

Do you have a contrary opinion on the issue, or on the limits of Free Speech? Tell us what you think.

Aaman Lamba is the Publisher of Desicritics.org, a Blogcritics network site. He also blogs, more infrequently nowadays, at Audit Trails Of Self
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Desicritics And Historical Commentary On Free Speech And The Danish Cartoons

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Author: Aaman Lamba

 

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#1
Kush Tandon
URL
February 3, 2006
07:28 PM

There was an incredibly erudite Muslim on BBC who said (paraphrase):

"You should never censor free speech. If you have problem take it to the court for libel and defamation."

He himself was slighly offended.

The moment free speech is gone, we are done.

Very well written.

#2
temporal
URL
February 3, 2006
10:44 PM

Aaman:

good write up...haroon also said: But what it has actually exposed is the European media's tendency to exploit anti-immigrant, particularly anti-Muslim, bigotry, as well as the Danes' readiness to bow to the gods of commerce.

have a feeling we haven't heard the last of this imbroglio...hope better sense prevails all around...and trigger happy loonies are restrained

#3
Howard Dratch
URL
February 4, 2006
01:26 AM

Fine post and I will follow the links to the other posts on this brouhaha which I have neglected to follow closely enough.

However, you never told us of the story of "Mohamet, The Idiot" which so riled the illiterate mob except to say it was innocuous. The NY Times article also ignores the story. My curiosity is insatiable. What was the story of Mohamet, The Idiot, were the newspaper offices destroyed, how did your father explain this situation to you (I assume you were young). Sure, the politico-religious situation is incendiary but don't leave us hanging without a closure to the story of the story and the riots. Let alone of the "frisson of fear".

#4
Teeth Maestro
URL
February 4, 2006
01:34 AM

Truly an amazing post - captures the true essence of the controversy.

But apart from the people having a brawl over this issue someone should put to task the western media for raising this issue well after four months since these comics were first published, it ain't Breaking News four months later - Puzzling?

#5
Aaman
URL
February 4, 2006
01:35 AM

Ah, well, the riots themselves were the usual - burnt vehicles, shops, an apology from the paper.

I wish I had a copy of the story. The Deccan Herald online archives only go back to 1993, and this happened in 1986, when I was 12.(Anyone wants to visit the offices and get a copy of the story?) Young enough to feel, and on the edge of my first romances. I remember those more clearly than the tense days. The tension in the city prevailed for over a week. My father and I talked about it often in the intervening years, as an example of the folly of relying too much on other people's opinions and not forming one's own. And then a few years later, we had the Babri riots, whence Bangalore was mostly quiet.

This feels like a post forming...:)

#6
vani kalra
February 4, 2006
10:38 AM

Freedom of speech is all very well but we tend to forget that along with freedom comes responsibility which is very well put forth in Ashoka's edict as qouted by you. And this really makes me wonder at times whether we are evolving or regressing. Perhaps we really need to dust off those history tomes which no body reads or bothers to teach anymore and learn a couple of things about tolerance and respecting the rights of others.

#7
Aaman
URL
February 4, 2006
08:04 PM

This article in the Times raises interesting points on the issue.

#8
Aaman
URL
February 7, 2006
01:32 AM

I need to update this post with all the interesting articles that keep coming up on this topic

#9
Kush Tandon
URL
February 7, 2006
01:49 AM

They have been some interesting comments at Sepia Mutiny too.

#10
Aaman
URL
February 7, 2006
01:52 AM

Already linked Sepia Mutiny's interesting post in the Spotlight Bar on the right - thanks - BTW, please make your URLs links (href,etc)

#11
Kush Tandon
URL
February 7, 2006
01:56 AM

Will do, Aaman. My blog automatically converts it to live link, therefore, spoiled. No worries.

#12
Zainub
URL
February 8, 2006
02:08 PM

Doesn't this freedom of speech bandwagon reap of hypocrisy? A State department spokesperson, I just saw in the news, has rubbished a competition launched by an Iranian newspapers seeking cartoons about the holocaust as something completely "outrageous", yet caricatures of a Prophet that is dear to millions across the Muslim world is deemed simply "freedom of speech". Unless the media in the West cleans it's acts with regard to its obvious double standards, and stops looking at the world with two separate pair of glasses, their calls for calm over the reaction to the cartoons will fall on deaf ears. I'm not in support for most of the violence protests that have erupted, I'm not even sure I want to blame an entire nation in Denmark for the foolish acts of a few, but when I came across statements like these from, I wonder how long my patience will last.

#13
Shanti
URL
February 8, 2006
04:50 PM

Zainub - so true - it is so completely fine to insult 6 million dead to prove a point about a religious figure. How do the Jews really fit into the equation again? How are they remotely involved in the controversy?

#14
Ruvy in Jerusalem
February 8, 2006
05:08 PM

Shanti,

Thank you for coming to the defense of my people. It gets really tiresome. When westerners have a fight they always have to drag out the old Jew-boy to beat on. Just like the cusades some 900 years ago. The Chrisians were all pissed off because the Moslems controlled Jerusalem. So they set off for Israel to kill the infidels - and murdered thousands of Jews along the way just for practice.

I really don't care what the Iranian mullahs do with their cartoons. At least it's just cartoons. But hearing about all the "professional" Jews with the big salaries bleat and whine and whine and bleat...

I don't know which is worse - the scum who insult us or the professional Jews who whine like stuck pigs when the scum do insult us.

#15
Shanti
URL
February 8, 2006
05:17 PM

Ruvy, I can feel your pain. It is a never-ending story with the innocents caught in between.

#16
DrPolitics
URL
February 9, 2006
07:27 AM

Islam says it's all right to demonstrate but not to resort to violence. Extremist elements have taken advantage of this cartoon affair. This must stop.

#17
Zainub
URL
February 9, 2006
07:28 AM

If it is incorrect to insult 6 million dead, I don't see how it is fine to insult a Prophet that is dear to over 1 billion people. If cartoons ridiculing the Prophet is expression of free speech then cartoons ridiculing the holocaust is also free speech.

I disapprove of both, but it just raises a point, the Western media is painfully biased in it's standards of freedom of speech. A letter in Dawn, a local daily from where I come, just highlights some of the many examples of the double standards prevalent in the Western media, link here

#18
Zainub
URL
February 9, 2006
07:30 AM

ps: link above is faulty, refer below instead

http://www.dawn.com/2006/02/09/letted.htm

#19
Shanti
URL
February 9, 2006
09:58 AM

Zainub, if an eye for an eye is what is warranted in the situation then you still need to go pick on some Christian holy stuff and not Jews since the Jews are again not involved in this controversy even peripherally. It doesn't make any sense to have a fight with one person and spit on another.

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